The Iron Snail


The Museum has recently received specimens of the enigmatic deep-sea vent snail, Chrysomallon squamiferum, the scaly-foot snail. In this post, Dr Chong Chen explains why this species is so extraordinary.


This is no ordinary snail. First of all, it lives in deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean, more than 2,500 metres deep, just beside black smokers that are churning out superheated water exceeding 350°C. Second, it is the only known gastropod with a suit of scale armour. Thirdly, the scales as well as the shell are mineralised with iron sulfide. That’s right – these snails make a skeleton out of iron, and are the only animal so far known to do so.

A specimen of Chrysomallon squamiferum photographed live (Photo: David Shale)
A specimen of Chrysomallon squamiferum photographed live (Photo: David Shale)

Hydrothermal vents were first discovered in the Galápagos Rift as recently as 1977. This is just off the Galápagos Islands whose fauna famously inspired Charles Darwin in the development of his theory of natural selection. Vents are deep-sea ‘hot springs’ fuelled by geological activity; the hot erupting fluid is usually acidic and contains various metals, as well as hydrogen sulfide. This is what makes rotten eggs smell bad, and is toxic to most organisms. Some bacteria, however, are able to use it to produce energy in a process known as chemosynthesis.

Hydra, an active ‘black smoker’ vent chimney in Longqi field, Southwest Indian Ridge
Hydra, an active ‘black smoker’ vent chimney in Longqi field, Southwest Indian Ridge

Over geological timescales many remarkable organisms have adapted to live in these ‘toxic utopia’, and flourish by exploiting the energy produced by these bacteria. The scaly-foot snail has also harnessed the power of chemosynthesis, housing endosymbiotic bacteria – bacteria living inside another creature to mutual benefit – in an enlarged part of its gut. This produces the energy it needs. In another words – it has a food factory inside its body and doesn’t even need to feed! This is likely the reason it can grow to about 45mm in size, when most of its close relatives without endosymbionts are only 15mm or smaller.

Close-up of the scales, also showing the reduced operculum in middle
Close-up of the scales, also showing the reduced operculum in middle

Scaly-foot snails were first discovered in 2001, at the Kairei vent field in the Indian Ocean. Its discovery came as a great surprise as even among those animals specialised for living at vents, it was very, very strange. And cool. Although the shell of a snail is well-known to be modified into a great variety of forms, this is not the case with hard parts on the foot, and apart from an operculum (the ‘trap-door’ serving as a lid when the animal retracts to its shell) no other gastropods have other mineralised structures on the foot. Yet C. squamiferum has thousands of scales!

The shell, although not particularly exciting in form, isn’t exactly ordinary either as the outermost layer is made of iron sulfide. And so are the scales. So this entire animal is covered in iron compound, mainly pyrite (FeS2, or ‘Fool’s gold’) and greigite (Fe3S4). As greigite is magnetic, the animal actually sticks to magnets. The function of the scales is postulated to be either protection or detoxification but their true use remains a mystery.

The three vent fields where Chrysomallon squamiferum is known from
The three vent fields where Chrysomallon squamiferum is known from

So why blog about the ‘scaly-foot’ now, if it has already been known to science for more than a decade? Well, actually, despite numerous studies and publications on its strange biology this species has never been formally described and named, until now. A recent paper by Dr Chong Chen (Department of Zoology, University of Oxford) and colleagues finally gave it the scientific name you see here – Chrysomallon squamiferum.

The Museum received a set of five specimens as part of the description process, which will serve as key references for scientists who wish to study this extraordinary species in the future.

Here’s a video of the Longqi hydrothermal field featuring Chrysomallon squamiferum in their natural habitat:

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14 thoughts on “The Iron Snail

  1. […] Deep in the Indian Ocean, near extremely hot hydrothermal vents, where scalding hot water erupts in tall, blacky columns, lives an extraordinary species of snail called chrysomallon squamiferum, commonly known as scaly-foot gastropod. The harsh environment has caused the snail to develop a unique exoskeleton. Its outer shell is covered with a layer of iron, and its soft fleshy foot that protrudes from the under the shell is protected by hard mineralized scales made of iron sulphides. Scaly-foot gastropod is the only animal on Earth known to utilize iron in this way. Credit : amusingplanet Scaly-foot gastropod is magnetic and sticks to magnets. Photo credit Photo credit Photo credit Photo credit Photo credit Photo credit […]

  2. […] While the scaly-foot snail gets its name from the shingle-like tiles that cover its body, both the scales and shell are made from a unique combination of metal and organic materials. All snails use a combination of hard minerals as well as soft organic matter to give their shells both strength and flexibility. The scaly-foot snail takes this even further by creating an additional outer layer of iron sulfide particles (yes, literal pieces of metal) embedded in organic material. In fact, there is so much iron in the snail’s shell that they stick to magnets. […]

  3. These amazing creatures reflect the magnificent design in all living things, as a gifted naturalist once wrote “the earth is full of your productions”

  4. Hi Dr.KerKush! I’m a six grader from the US and I am fascinated by the scaly foot gastropod. I’m curious if you facility has a specimen of the animal? Thank you!

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