A grasp of the past

by Ricardo Perez-De-La Fuente, research fellow

Few creatures look weirder – or are cooler, in my opinion – than mantidflies. There are around 400 species of these small predatory insects known worldwide – a scarce diversity by insect standards.

Like praying mantises, mantidflies have long ‘necks’ and forelegs armed with powerful spines and other structures used to hunt their prey with a sudden lethal grasp. The unfortunate victims become immobilised until they are meticulously eaten alive – not the best way to spend your last minutes on Earth!

Mantidflies belong to the Neuroptera order of insects and so aren’t actually related to praying mantises, but to insects such as lacewings and antlions.

A new paper that a colleague and I have published presents a new fossil mantidfly from Spanish amber that is important in understanding the evolution of their gripping – or raptorial – forelegs. The finding is presented in the open access journal Scientific Reports today.

Although the discovery has just been published, we excavated the new fossil during the scorching summer of 2010 in Teruel, northeastern Spain.

Amber excavations are very romantic – while they take place we carefully store the amber, piece by piece, into muddy plastic bags, remaining oblivious of what creatures are being unearthed because the amber surfaces have become opaque during fossilisation. Later, in the laboratory, the surfaces of the amber pieces are polished and screened for inclusions. Then a first glimpse is gained into what has remained frozen in time for millions of years.

It is only when the amber inclusions are carefully examined and studied that the implications of the specimens that were dug up years earlier start to be revealed. In this case, a specimen that was preserved in fragments, nothing spectacular at first look, ended up being truly exceptional.

Foreleg of Aragomantispa lacerata, showing powerful spines and other structures adapted to strike and hold prey.

Extinct true mantidflies, particularly those preserved in amber, are extremely rare. Our new fossil, pictured above at the top of the article, is 105 million years old, from the Cretaceous period. It currently stands as the oldest true mantidfly known in amber. The new extinct species, named Aragomantispa lacerata, has allowed us to compare the structures of the raptorial forelegs between extinct and extant mantidflies with an unprecedented detail.

Comparison between the foreleg spine-like structures of the new fossil mantidfly (up), with those from a close modern species (bottom).

Present-day mantidflies have forelegs with spines that bear minute cones at their tip. These cones are sensory organs that elicit the striking reflex and feel the prey’s movements once captured and restrained by the mantidfly’s tight embrace.

The forelegs of Aragomantispa lack these cones at the spines’ tip, instead having larger, icicle-shaped tips. We do not know how sensitive the mantidfly forelegs were in the Cretaceous, but the spines of at least some of these insects seem to be not as specialised as those from their present-day relatives.

Some mantidflies have smaller, reclined hair-like structures forming an edge on the leg’s surface opposing the spines. These reinforced edges create a scissor effect that stuns prey when the forelegs strike. Although Aragomatispa has these structures on the forelegs, they are also different in shape to those found on extant mantidflies.

Reconstruction of Aragomantispa lacerata striking at a hypothetical prey on a fern in the Cretaceous Spanish forest.

The fossil record offers the only direct means to assess when and how the traits characteristic of a given animal group originated in time. However, this kind of fossil evidence appears very occasionally. Our discovery shows that the foreleg spine-like structures of recent mantidflies were not fully developed in at least some of their Cretaceous ancestors.

The most exciting part is to think that this story and literally thousands more lie waiting to be discovered – or otherwise forgotten forever – buried underground.

How the sea cucumber lost its armour

By Imran Rahman, Research Fellow

You have probably heard of sea cucumbers. If you’re lucky, you might have seen one, if not in the wild, then perhaps in a nature documentary like Blue Planet or the children’s cartoon Octonauts. If you’re less lucky, you might have eaten one – they are most commonly described as slippery and bland in taste!

Despite their appearance, sea cucumbers are actually marine animals most closely related to sea urchins, rather than to worms or slugs. Over the past century palaeontologists have uncovered a range of ancient fossil relatives of modern sea cucumbers that allow us to piece together the story of how they evolved from armoured ‘tanks’ into the naked slug-like forms we see today. One such fossil is described in a new paper by my colleagues and I, just published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

The fossil in question is 430-million-years-old, and it comes from a site of exceptionally-preserved fossils in England called the Herefordshire Lagerstätte. Herefordshire has produced many exciting discoveries over the years, from prehistoric parasites to an ancient ‘kite runner’. The new fossil is the first of its kind from this deposit.

Like all fossils from Herefordshire, the specimen was preserved in an egg-shaped nodule of rock. Because the rock has the same chemical composition as the fossil, it could not be studied with modern imaging methods such as CT scanning. Instead, it had to be studied by painstakingly grinding away the fossil, a few hundredths of a millimetre as a time, with photographs taken of each exposed surface using a digital camera. This allowed us to build up a dataset of hundreds of slice images through the fossil, which were digitally reconstructed as a 3-D ‘virtual fossil’ on a computer.

The 3D computer reconstruction revealed a very peculiar animal, about 3 cm wide, with 45 tentacle-like ‘tube feet’ and a large mouth surrounded by five teeth. The animal had a skeleton made up of numerous hard plates, which were composed of the mineral calcite. After studying this fossil and comparing it to other similar ones from the same time period, we were able to identify it as a species new to science. We named the species Sollasina cthulhu, for its resemblance to monsters from the Cthulhu universe created by author H.P. Lovecraft.

One of the most useful things about our 3D computer reconstruction was that it enabled us to study the inner features of the fossil, as well as the parts visible on the outer surface. This revealed internal soft parts that had never previously been described in this group of fossils. In particular, it allowed us to see an internal ring-like structure within the main body cavity.

3D reconstruction of Sollasina cthulhu. Left-hand image shows part of lower surface. Right-hand image shows same view with outer surface partly transparent to reveal inner ring (in red). Credit: Imran Rahman, Oxford University Museum of Natural History

We interpreted this inner ring as part of the water vascular system – the system of fluid-filled canals used for feeding and movement in modern sea cucumbers and their relatives, such as sea urchins and starfish. In life, the ring was connected to the large tube feet, which were filled with seawater. Most of these tube feet were used for crawling over the seafloor, with those nearest the mouth used for capturing food. The teeth could cut and crush food items, which were then eaten by the animal.

Life reconstruction of Sollasina cthulhu. Credit: Elissa Martin, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History

To work out the evolutionary relationships of Sollasina cthulhu, we assembled a list of characteristics for various fossil and modern sea cucumbers and sea urchins. We analysed this matrix using several computational methods to determine how these different animals were related to one another. The results confirmed that Sollasina cthulhu and closely-related forms were ancient relatives of modern sea cucumbers. This allowed us to reconstruct the early evolution of sea cucumbers, back to their shared common ancestor with sea urchins, over 450 million years ago. Our study demonstrates this was a story of loss, with fossil sea cucumbers becoming progressively less armoured as they evolved into modern forms.

This discovery has greatly improved our understanding of sea cucumber evolution, but several questions remain. One intriguing question is when and how did sea cucumbers lose their teeth, and did these evolve into any features seen in living sea cucumbers? Future study of existing and new fossil sea cucumbers and sea urchins will help to answer this and other intriguing questions.

Animating the extinct

This sumptuous video features on our brand new Out of the Deep display and brings to life the two large marine reptile skeletons seen in the cases. The Museum exhibition team worked with Martin Lisec of Mighty Fossils, who specialise in palaeo reconstructions. Martin and his animators also created a longer video explaining how the long-necked plesiosaur became fossilised, as well as beautiful illustrations of life in the Jurassic seas. 
Martin explains the process of animating these long-extinct creatures:

The first step was to make 3D models of all the animals that would appear in the films or illustrations. After discussion with the Museum team, it was clear that we would need two plesiosaurs (one short-necked, known as a pliosaur, one long-necked), ammonites, belemnites and other Jurassic sea life. Now we were able to define the scale of detail, size and texture quality of the model.

In consultation with Dr. Hilary Ketchum, the palaeontologist on the project, we gathered important data, including a detailed description of the discovered skeletons, photographs, 3D scans, and a few sketches.

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We created the first version of the model to determine proportions and a body shape. After several discussions with Hilary, some improvements were made and the ‘primal model’ of the long-necked plesiosaur was ready for the final touches – adding details, mapping, and textures. We could then move on to create the other 3D models.

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The longer animation was the most time-consuming. We prepared the short storyboard, which was then partly changed during the works, but that is a common part of a creative job. For example, when it was agreed during the process that the video would contain description texts, it affected the speed and length of the whole animation – obviously, it has to be slower so that people are able to watch and read all important information properly.

A certain problem appeared when creating the short, looped animation. The first picture had to precisely follow the last one – quite a difficult goal to reach in case of underwater scenery. Hopefully no-one can spot the join!

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At this moment we had a rough animation to be finalised. We had to make colour corrections, add effects and sound – everything had to fit perfectly. After the first version, there were a few more with slight adjustments of animation, cut and text corrections. The final version of both animations was ready and then rendered in different quality and resolution for use in the display and online.

The last part of the project was creating a large illustration, 12,000 x 3,000 pixels, which would be used as a background for a large display panel. Text, diagrams and a screen showing the animations would be placed on this background, making the composition a little tricky. We agreed that the base of the illustration would be just the background. The underwater scene and creatures were placed in separate layers so that it would be easy to adjust them – move them, change their size, position etc.

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In the first phase, we had to set the colour scale to achieve the proper look of the warm and shallow sea, then we made rough sketches of the scene including seabed and positions of individual creatures. We had to make continuous adjustments as the display design developed.

Then we finished the seabed with vegetation, gryphaea shells and plankton floating in the water. The final touch was to use lighting to create an illusion of depth for the Jurassic creatures to explore.


More Out of the Deep videos are available on the Museum website.

Life’s big bang?

by Harriet Drage and Scott Billings

You may have heard of the Cambrian Explosion, an ‘event’, starting roughly 540 million years ago, when all the major animal groups suddenly appear in the fossil record, an apparent explosion of life and evolution.

But was there really an evolutionary explosion of all these animal groups, or is the lack of evidence from earlier periods due to some peculiarity of the fossilisation process? The debate has rumbled on for a number of years.

Now, a new study from our research team, the University of Oxford’s Department of Zoology, and the University of Lausanne, claims that the early Cambrian saw the origins and evolution of the largest and most important animal group on Earth – the euarthropods – in a paper which challenges two major pictures of animal evolution.

Euarthropoda contains the insects, crustaceans, spiders, trilobites, and a huge diversity of other forms alive and extinct. They comprise over 80 percent of all animal species on the planet and are key components of all of Earth’s ecosystems, making them the most important group since the dawn of animals over 500 million years ago.

Exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils of the Cambrian predator and stem-lineage euarthropod Anomalocaris canadensis from the Burgess Shale, Canada. Top left: Frontal appendage showing segmentation similar to modern-day euarthropods. Bottom right: Full body specimen showing one pair of frontal appendages (white arrows) and mouthparts consisting of plates with teeth (black arrow) on the head. Images: A. Daley.

A team based at the museum, and now at Lausanne, conducted the most comprehensive fossil analysis ever undertaken on early euarthropods, to try and establish whether these animals really did emerge in the early Cambrian period, or whether fossilisation just didn’t occur in any earlier periods.

In an article published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences they show that, taken together, the total fossil record does show a gradual radiation of euarthropods during the early Cambrian, 540-500 million years ago, challenging other ideas that suggest either a rapid explosion of forms, or a much slower evolution that has not been preserved in the fossil record.

Each of the major types of fossil evidence has its limitation and they are incomplete in different ways, but when taken together they are mutually illuminating
Professor Allison Daley

Reconstruction of the Cambrian predator and stem-lineage euarthropod Anomalocaris canadensis, based on fossils from the Burgess Shale, Canada. Reconstruction by Natalia Patkiewicz.

By looking at a huge range of fossil material the researchers ruled out the possibility that Pre-Cambrian rocks older than around 541 million years would not have preserved early euarthropods. The only plausible explanation left is that the origins of this huge animal group didn’t evolve until about 540 million years ago, an estimate which also matches the most recent molecular dating.

The timing of the origin of Euarthropoda is very important as it affects how we view and interpret the evolution of the group and its effects on the planet. By working out which groups developed first we can trace the evolution of physical characteristics, such as limbs.

Exploring all the evidence like this allows us to make an informed estimate about the origins of key animal groups, leading to a better understanding of the evolution of early life on Earth.

Model of the Cambrian stem lineage euarthropod Peytoia, based on fossils from the Burgess Shale. Top left: Closeup of the mouth parts and frontal appendages. Bottom right: Overall view of the body. Model and image: E. Horn.

Is it real? – Fossils

One of the most common questions asked about our specimens, from visitors of all ages, is ‘Is it real?’. This seemingly simple question is actually many questions in one and hides a complexity of answers. 

In this FAQ mini-series we’ll unpack the ‘Is it real?’ conundrum by looking at different types of natural history specimens in turn. We’ll ask ‘Is it a real animal?’, ‘Is it real biological remains?’, ‘Is it a model?’ and many more reality-check questions.

This time: Fossils, by Duncan Murdock

Whether it’s the toothy grin of a dinosaur towering over you, an oyster shell in the paving stone beneath you, or a trilobite in your hand, fossils put the prehistory into natural history collections. Anyone who has spent a day combing beaches for ammonites, or scrabbling over rocks in a quarry will attest that fossils are ‘real’. It is the thrill of being the only person to have ever set eyes on an ancient creature that drives us fossil hounds back to rainy outcrops and dusty scree slopes. But fossils, unlike taxidermy and recent skeletons, very rarely contain any original material from living animals, so are they really ‘real’?

The Museum’s famous Megalosaurus jaw

Fossils are remains or traces of life (animals, plants and even microbes) preserved in the rock record by ‘fossilisation’.

This chemical and physical alteration makes fossils stable over very long timescales, from the most ancient glimpses of the first microbes billions of years ago to sub-fossils of dodos, mammoths and even early humans just a few thousand years old. They can be so tiny they can only be seen with the most high-powered microscopes or so huge they can only be displayed in vast exhibition halls, like our own T. rex. Among this is a spectrum of how much of the ‘real’ animal is preserved, and how much preparation and reconstruction is required to be able to display them in museums.

Trace fossils include footprint trackways like these, made by extinct reptile Chirotherium.

Generally, the more there is of the original material and anatomy, the rarer the fossils are. Among the most common fossils found are ‘trace fossils’: burrows, footprints, traces, nests, stomach contents and even droppings (known as ‘coprolites’). Most ‘body’ fossils also contain nothing of the living creature, rather they are impressions of hard parts like teeth, bones and shells.

This ammonite fossil, Titanites titan, was formed when a mould was filled with a different sediment, which later turned to rock.

When an organism is buried the soft parts quickly decay away. The hard parts decay much more slowly, and can leave space behind, creating a fossil mould. If this later gets filled with different sediment, it forms a cast.

These sediments are buried further still and eventually turned into rocks. Alternatively, the hard parts can be replaced by different minerals that are much more stable over geological time. Essentially bone becomes rock one crystal at a time.

3D reconstruction of 430 million year old fossil, Aquilonifer spinosus. Found in Herefordshire Lagerstätte, which preserves ancient remains with superb detail.

Very rarely the soft parts of an organism get preserved, but in the most exceptional cases skin, muscles, guts, eyes and even brains can be preserved. If buried quickly enough an animal can be compressed completely flat to leave behind a thin film of organic material, or even soft parts themselves can be replaced by minerals, piece-by-piece. These mineralized fossils can be exquisitely preserved in three dimensions, even down to individual cells in some cases. This is about as ‘real’ as most fossils can be, except the few special cases where the remains of an organism are preserved virtually unaltered, entombed in amber, sunk into tar pits or bogs, or frozen in permafrost. The latter push the boundaries of what can really be called a fossil.

Bambiraptor feinbergi

The final step in the process, from the unfortunate demise of a critter to its eventual study or display, involves preparation. In most cases the fossil has to be removed from the surrounding rock with hammers, chisels, dental tools and sometimes acids. This preparation can be quite subjective, a highly skilled preparator has to make judgements about what is or isn’t part of the fossil. The specimen may also need to be glued together or cracks filled in, so not everything you see is always original.

As with modern skeletons, there are often missing parts, so a fully articulated dinosaur skeleton may be a composite of several individuals, or contain replica bones. This is, of course, not a problem as long as it is clear what has been done to the fossil. This is not always the case, and there are examples of deliberately forged fossils, carved into or glued onto real rocks, or forgeries composed of several different fossils to make something ‘new’, like a ‘cut n shut’ car.

So, if you see a fossil that looks too good to be true, then it just might be worth asking, “is it real”?

Next time… Models, casts and replicas
Last time… Skeletons and bones


By Jack J Matthews, research fellow

On the southern shores of Newfoundland in Canada lie rocks containing the oldest known evidence of large, architecturally-complex life. Deposited within the Ediacaran Period, some 565 million years ago, these deep marine deposits have been the focus of palaeontological research since the first discovery of fossils there in 1967, and the locality – Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve – now sits in the UNESCO World Heritage list.

As part of my research on these rocks, alongside colleagues from Memorial University of Newfoundland, and the University of Cambridge, I created a new geological map of the area, covering 35 km of coastline in and around the Reserve. As well as providing new insights into the rocks themselves, and what environments they were deposited in, this mapping had an unexpected outcome – the discovery of some totally new fossil sites.

Overview of the Mistaken Point outcrop of the famous ‘E’ Surface

One site in particular, dubbed the ‘E’ surface, is the focus for Ediacaran fossils in Newfoundland. It is an area about the size of three Olympic boxing rings, containing more than 3,000 fossil organisms. Through the mapping we found a number of other outcrops of this same surface, but each shows slightly different types of fossils.

This is a mystery: if all the outcrops are from the same geological surface, why do they show different fossil assemblages?

The clue to the answer came while photographing the fossils and overlying volcanic ash at Mistaken Point, when I heard a loud, deep boom: a freak wave had struck the bottom of the cliff below the outcrop, sending a large splash of salty spray over much of the surface.

This got me thinking – how are processes such as weathering and erosion affecting the fossil surfaces now? Closer observation revealed those outcrops of ‘E’ with pristine beautiful fossils tended to be further from the sea, have a shallower dip, and the overlying ash tended to fall away in little flakes revealing beautiful, crisp, fossils. Other outcrops with scruffy fossils were usually close to the sea, battered by waves and rocks, steeply dipping, and the overlying ash, and often the fossils below it, would gradually abrade away as they are attacked by the sea.

Looking along the ‘E’ surface showing areas still covered in ash (black) and revealed fossil surface (red and grey)

Palaeontologists often discuss how changes during the fossil preservation of an organism can affect what we discover today, but they rarely discuss how processes occurring after preservation – metamorphism, exhumation, weathering, erosion, and even the time, manner, and conditions in which the fossil is recorded – might all affect how we analyse and interpret the original community of life which became fossilised.

Our new paper, published by the Geological Society of London, talks about these Post-Fossilization Processes, and recommends that when researchers are collecting fossil data they consider how their measurements might have been biased by such factors.

For 50 years now, the coastline of Newfoundland has yielded some of the most important finds in understanding the rise of the early life of the Ediacara, and through that the first evidence of animal life. Discoveries over the past few years show there is still much more to be found, and we’ll just have to hope that the post-fossilization processes fall in our favour to allow for many more significant discoveries.